Causes Of Munich Agreement

The British people expected war to be imminent, and Chamberlain`s “statesman gesture” was initially greeted with applause. Welcomed as a hero by the royal family, he was invited to the balcony of Buckingham Palace before submitting the deal to the British Parliament. The generally positive reaction quickly responded in the negative, despite the royal sponsorship. However, there was resistance from the beginning. Clement Attlee and the Labour Party rejected the deal in alliance with two Conservative MPs, Duff Cooper and Vyvyan Adams, who had previously been seen as a tough and reactionary element in the Conservative Party. From 29 to 30 September 1938, an emergency meeting of the main European powers was held in Munich, excluding Czechoslovakia or the Soviet Union, an ally of France and Czechoslovakia. An agreement was quickly reached on Hitler`s terms. It was signed by the leaders of Germany, France, Britain and Italy. Militarily, the Sudetenland was of strategic importance to Czechoslovakia, as most of its border defenses were there to protect against a German attack. The agreement between the four powers was signed in the context of an undeclared german-Czechoslovak war of low intensity, which had begun on September 17, 1938. Meanwhile, after September 23, 1938, Poland transferred its military units to its common border with Czechoslovakia.

[2] Czechoslovakia yielded to diplomatic pressure from France and Britain and agreed, on 30 September, to cede territories to Germany in Munich. Fearing the possible loss of Zaolzie to Germany, Poland issued Zaolzie with a majority of ethnic Poles, Germany in advance and Czechoslovakia on October 1. [3] After learning that areas inhabited by Poland were to be transferred to Germany, Poland questioned a note addressed to the Czechoslovak government in which it called for “the immediate conclusion of an agreement according to which Polish territory would be indisputably occupied by Polish troops; this was followed by agreement on referendums in districts where the Polish population was densely populated. [75] The munich citation in foreign policy debates is also common in the twenty-first century. [107] During negotiations on the Iran nuclear deal by Secretary of State John Kerry, a Republican lawmaker from Texas called the negotiations “worse than Munich.” Kerry himself had invoked Munich in a speech in France, in which he campaigned for military action in Syria by saying, “This is our Munich moment.” [108] Czechoslovakia was informed by Britain and France that it could either resist Nazi Germany alone or submit to the prescribed annexations. The Czechoslovak government, which recognized the desperation of fighting alone against the Nazis, reluctantly capitulated (30 September) and agreed to abide by the agreement. The colony gave Germany, from October 10, the territory of the Sudetenland and de facto control of the rest of Czechoslovakia, as long as Hitler promised not to go any further. On September 30, after a break, Chamberlain went to Hitler`s house and asked him to sign a peace treaty between the United Kingdom and Germany. After translating it for him, Hitler`s interpreter happily agreed. .

I believe that the solution to the Czechoslovak problem, which has just been resolved, is only the prelude to a broader settlement in which the whole of Europe can find peace. This morning I had another conversation with the German Chancellor, Mr Hitler, and here is the document that bears his name, just like mine. Some of you may have already heard what it contains, but I would just like to read it to you: “. We regard the agreement signed last night and the Anglo-German naval agreement as a symbol of the desire of our two peoples never to go to war again. [96] During World War II, British Prime Minister Churchill, who rejected the agreement when it was signed, decided that the terms of the agreement would not be respected after the war and that the Sudenian regions should be returned to post-war Czechoslovakia. . . .